Writing Operations

Operations are defined as Python functions. They are passed the current deploy state, the target host and any operation arguments. Operation functions read state from the host, comparing it to the arguments, and yield commands.

Input: arguments

There are a number of arguments pyinfra uses that cannot be used within operations:

  • All the global operation arguments are reserved for controlling how operations are executed
  • The arguments state, host, frameinfo and _line_number are reserved for internal use within pyinfra
  • The first argument cannot accept set objects, as these will be removed for use as the operation name (this is legacy support for 0.x and will be removed in v2)

In addition to any operation arguments, the function must take a state & host arguments, both defaulting to None.

def my_operation(..., state=None, host=None):

Output: commands

Operations are generator functions and yield three types of command:

# Shell commands, simply represented by a string OR the `StringCommand` class
yield 'echo "Shell!"'
yield StringCommand('echo "Shell!"')

# File uploads represented by the `FileUploadCommand` class
yield FileUploadCommand(filename_or_io, remote_filename)

# File downloads represented by the `FileDownloadCommand` class
yield FileDownloadCommand(remote_filename, filename_or_io)

# Python functions represented by the `FunctionCommand` class
yield FunctionCommand(function, args_list, kwargs_dict)

# Additionally, commands can override some of the global arguments
yield StringCommand('echo "Shell!"', sudo=True)

Example: managing files

This is a simplified version of the files.file operation, which will create/remove a remote file based on the present kwargs:

from pyinfra.api import operation

def file(name, present=True, state=None, host=None):
    Manage the state of files.

    + name: name/path of the remote file
    + present: whether the file should exist

    info = host.fact.file(name)

    # Not a file?!
    if info is False:
        raise OperationError('{0} exists and is not a file'.format(name))

    # Doesn't exist & we want it
    if info is None and present:
        yield 'touch {0}'.format(name)

    # It exists and we don't want it
    elif info and not present:
        yield 'rm -f {0}'.format(name)